Cell Permeable Peptides (CPP) freely cross cell membranes
Efficient transfer of proteins or nucleic acids across cellular membranes is one of the major problems in cell biology.
Cell Permeable Peptides, also known as Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs), are short peptides that can freely move across cell membranes.
Several PTDs have been identified that allow a fused protein to efficiently cross cell membranes in a process known as protein transduction. In addition to their high transduction efficiencies, cell permeable peptides demonstrate low cytotoxicity.
CPP’s are widely used to deliver such cargo as proteins, oligonucleotides, plasmid DNA, RNA, liposomes and anti-cancer drugs into cells. CPP’s can be attached to cargo either covalently or non-covalently. Delivery efficiency is dependent on size of cargo-CPP complex, nature of CPP, the type of peptide sequence, etc.
CPPs themselves differ in their transduction efficiencies for different cell types and to where they localize within the cell. For example, TAT transports to the cytosol of HeLa cells, whereas Antennapedia can cross the blood-brain barrier.
Cell permeable peptide sequences are either cationic, amphipathic, or hydrophobic. The suggested mechanisms of CPP entrance into cells includes direct penetration (ie., pore formation, and inverted micelle formation), and endocytosis.
Use of Protein Transduction Domains
in cancer research
PTDs have been utilized in anticancer strategy, for example, a cell permeable Bcl-2 binding peptide, cpm1285, shows activity in slowing human myeloid leukemia growth in mice.
Cell-permeable phosphopeptides, such as FGFR730pY, which mimics receptor binding sites for specific SH2 domain-containing proteins, are potential tools for cancer research and cell signaling mechanism studies.
In addition to our catalog CPP peptide offering, we are one of the few providers that can incorporate any CPP sequence onto your custom peptide or custom oligonucleotide as per your specifications.